A ceiling breakthrough for a staircase sounds dramatic at first, but with a little planning it is not an insoluble problem. The most important factor to consider is maintaining stability.
Why a ceiling breakthrough?
A ceiling breakthrough can be necessary for various reasons. For example, because the top floor is to be expanded and the living space is to be integrated into the lower apartment. Unfortunately, up to now the roof is only accessible via the stairwell or via a ladder through a hatch. So a new breakthrough has to be made or the old one has to be enlarged.
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Standards for wooden stairs
The dimensions of a staircase are regulated according to DIN 18065. This standard states that the width of the stairs must be at least 80 cm. The steps must be of sufficient size, the slope of the stairs must be calculated according to the step rule. The DIN standard also prescribes a railing or handrail.
Types of stairs and the shape of the opening
The standards mean that you cannot install any staircase everywhere. If you have a lot of space to build, straight stairs are an option. If there is less space, spiral stairs are ideal. The type of staircase depends on the size and shape of the ceiling opening. Spiral stairs require a round or semicircular, straight staircase a rectangular opening.
Structure of the wooden ceiling
Before you make the breakthrough, check how the wooden ceiling is constructed. Breaking through a wood joist ceiling is easy because all you have to do is remove the floor covering and cut through wood. If it is a mounting ceiling made of concrete with a suspended wooden ceiling, the effort is greater.
Make the breakthrough
Breaking through a wooden beam ceiling is easy. You saw the cutout with a jigsaw or a circular saw (€ 108.00 on Amazon *) . You only have to pay attention to the position of the bars.
If it is a concrete ceiling with a suspended wooden ceiling, you should remove the corresponding part of the wood and stabilize the substructure around the planned hole. When chiseling out with a hammer drill (€ 159.90 at Amazon *) or when sawing the concrete, you must pay attention to the course of the reinforcement so that the statics are preserved. A structural engineer can tell you exactly where to make the breakthrough.