Noise and temperature are taken into account when insulating a wall. Sound insulation is particularly important for interior walls and cold insulation plays the greatest role in exterior walls. In terms of execution and implementation, the insulation performance of a wall is made up of wall material and mechanical structure.
Exterior and interior insulation
On almost all walls, insulation can be installed from two sides or be located in the middle of the wall. When doubling the wall and new buildings, the insulation of the wall can be planned and implemented in all three positions.
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In the case of existing walls often the effort and its function decide on the most advantageous insulation. The most conspicuous is the application of an outer insulation, for which façade cladding such as plaster must be removed and later be applied again. When sealing the wall from the inside there are construction physics limits regarding the effectiveness of the insulation measure.
When a wall is created in sufficient thickness and the appropriate walls or is, it usually already has good substantial insulation values. However, typical vulnerabilities can restrict the surface insulation. The neuralgian wall parts include:
- Window with windowsill, roller shutter box, fall and frame
- Doors with falling and frame
- Anchors and connections with other walls
- Wall branches
- Cooling bridges through foreign components such as carriers
- Sound bridges through cavities
- Butt joints between the insulation elements
Materials and methods of insulation
To put it simply, it is possible to attach insulation material directly to one side of a wall, to create a two-shell system with an additional level and to take advantage of thermally induced insulation effects through rear ventilation.
Combinations of several layers of different insulation materials in a composite system are common. Sheets or wool made of different materials are used as insulating core material:
- Styrofoam or polystyrene
- Mineral wool like rock wool (29.80 € at Amazon *)
- Glass wool
- Hemp or flax as wool or pressed
- Rigid foam sheets made of plastic
- Calcium silicate boards
- Cork boards
Additional layers are needed around this core material. Either an adhesive layer or a substructure is attached to the wall. Depending on the position of the wall, a reinforcement fabric is applied to the visible surface as a plaster substrate or a cladding. A vapor barrier, usually in the form of a film, is laid in the direction of the interior underneath.
Diffusion and moisture
Any insulation on a wall requires a balance between the insulation effect and the moisture balance. Since many walls are exposed to different temperatures and changing humidity, an airtight seal quickly leads to sweating of the masonry or to the formation of condensation.
Indoor surfaces need a vapor barrier to prevent moisture from entering the wall. At the same time, however, these foils can also bind moisture in the wall or masonry and lead to waterlogging. The individual situation Each wall must be individually insulated according to these aspects.Tips & Tricks If you want to insulate a "noisy" wall from your neighbor, you can achieve good effects with less complex measures. Thicker wallpapers made of cork, for example, absorb a lot of sound.