Washing machine: function and mode of operation

How does a washing machine actually work?? How do the individual washing programs differ?? And which individual steps does the washing machine actually carry out in a washing program? This article provides you with clear and comprehensive answers to these questions.

Basic operation of the washing machine

First of all, you have to distinguish washing machines based on their construction. Drum washing machines are mainly used in our country, whereas so-called tub washing machines are used in the USA and Asia.

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While the drum always moves in our models, in vat machines only a stirring arm moves in a stationary drum. That is why such machines have a completely different washing method than the one we use. Industrial machines also work differently than our household appliances.

When laundry is put into a drum washing machine and a washing program is started, water first runs into the drum and wets the laundry. It accepts detergent better when it is damp and is easier to clean. The laundry is then soaked to better loosen dirt.

After soaking, a pre-wash can be selected, which removes coarse soiling (sand, dust) from the laundry if necessary. However, it can also be dispensed with, depending on the washing program selected.

This is followed by the main wash. The laundry is mixed with detergent solution and repeatedly pressed into the detergent solution by the movements of the drum, carried up and then spun again into the detergent solution. This will push the dirt out of the laundry.

When rinsing, the residues of the detergent solution are then rinsed out again in several rinse cycles, and the loosened dirt is also pumped away from the clothing. In the last rinse cycle, the fabric softener is used again.

The laundry is then spun at different speeds in order to squeeze out the excess water. The residual moisture in the laundry is reduced by about half.

Washing programs

Individual steps can be modified or omitted by selecting the washing program. To do this, the temperature of the washing liquor is set. Usual temperatures are:

  • 30 ° C (delicate wash)
  • 45 ° C
  • 60 ° C (colored laundry)
  • 90 ° C - 95 ° C (hot wash)

Each washing program has its own special characteristics - for example, there is no spinning in the wool program, but only briefly and gently at low speeds in the case of delicates. There are also all kinds of programs, even for functional clothing in the outdoor area.

Tips & Tricks Machine washing always means wear and tear for items of laundry. Very sensitive textiles should therefore only be washed carefully by hand.